The majority of products and services in Monaco are subject to a consumption tax known as VAT, or “taxe sur la valeur ajoutée” (TVA), in French. Monaco's VAT rates might vary depending on the kind of products or services being purchased, much like in many other nations.


Introduction to VAT in Monaco

Monaco's standard VAT rate is now set at 20%, matching the rates of several other European nations. There are, however, other goods and services that are subject to lower VAT rates. These discounted prices, which are often lower than the standard rate, are meant to increase customer access to a range of necessary goods and services.

A variety of goods and services, including foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, books, newspapers, and many kinds of public transportation, are subject to Monaco's lower VAT rate, which is set at 10%. Also, the reduced rate of VAT may apply to some cultural events and services.

It's crucial to remember that not all goods and services in Monaco are subject to VAT. Numerous products and services, including some medical ones, are completely excluded from the tax.

It's crucial to be aware of the applicable VAT rates while making purchases in Monaco, whether for shopping or other purposes. The type of item being purchased and whether it is eligible for the reduced rate or the regular rate of VAT will determine the rate of VAT that will apply to a specific purchase. You can make sure you're paying the right amount of tax and are well-informed about your expenditure by being aware of the VAT rates that apply to your purchases.


Construction of properties that taxpayers have erected for consideration is subject to the general rules governing VAT on real estate transactions.


Sales of building lots and finished structures made for that purpose by taxpayers within five years of completion are subject to this category of VAT.

Sales of unbuildable land or structures that were completed more than five years ago are exempt from the VAT.

Taxpayers' sales of these assets, however, can be subject to an optional tax.

The tax is due by the vendor.

Transactions not subject to VAT are normally subject to inheritance / transfer tax.


Calculating VAT on property transactions

For real estate transactions, the VAT rate is 20%.

When finished properties are assessed based on their full cost, the tax is determined as follows:

• On the actual market value of the property, if the market value is higher than the purchase price, the amount of the consideration, or the value of ownership rights, plus fees. • Either on the sale price, the amount of the payment or the value of ownership rights granted in consideration of the contribution, plus fees to be added thereto.

If a taxpayer purchases any of the following without being entitled to a deduction, they are subject to margin tax:

• Land sales for construction

• Sales of structures that were finished more than five years ago and which have had their optional taxation rights used.



Social Security Contributions

In Monaco, both employers and employees must contribute to social security. The social security system of the nation, which offers its citizen's healthcare, pensions, and other benefits, is financed in part by these contributions. A given employee's rate of social security contributions is determined by their pay and work status.

Social security contributions are subtracted from an employee's gross pay. A sliding scale is used to determine the contribution rate, which also takes into account the employee's pay. For instance, the employee contribution rate is 9.55% for monthly salaries up to €5,000 and 15.5% for monthly salaries beyond €8,333.

On behalf of their employees, employers must also make contributions to the social security system. The standard rate of contribution for companies is 26.8% of the employee's gross pay. For some employment kinds, such as domestic helpers or part-timers, there are, however, discounted rates available.


International tax treaties

To encourage trade and investment, Monaco has signed a number of international tax treaties with other nations. These agreements include provisions on income tax, capital gains tax, and withholding tax.

The avoidance of double taxation, which happens when a person or business is taxed on the same income or capital gains in two distinct nations, is a crucial component of these treaties. By establishing guidelines for deciding which nation has the primary authority to tax specific forms of income or gains, these treaties seek to prevent this predicament.

These treaties may also offer lower tax rates for specific categories of income or transactions, in addition to preventing double taxation. For instance, some treaties may stipulate a lower withholding tax amount for dividend or interest payments made between the parties to the treaty.

Several nations, including France, Italy, Spain, and the United States, have tax treaties with Monaco.